Yogurt is produced when certain bacteria are added to milk in a checked environment and allowed to ferment. Most of the yogurt produced in the United States is made from cow’s milk but milk of other species such as goat and camel are used to making yogurt in other countries. Yogurt is described to be relatively thicker than plan milk and it also has tangy flavor which is mainly caused by bacterial fermentation.
In order for a dairy product to be called yogurt, it should contain bacteria namely Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. In most countries, yogurt should also have live bacteria and must remain to be unpasteurized. The pasteurized ones are labeled and they usually have long shelf life and do not require to be refrigerated.
To produce yogurt, first the milk is heated to 93 degrees Celsius and should be kept at the same temperature for about 10-30 minutes, depending on the desired thickness. To achieve thicker yogurt, the milk needs to be heated longer. The milk is then rapidly cooled to 44 degrees Celsius and is mixed with yogurt starter containing the needed bacteria. The mixture is then placed in clean containers and it will be incubated for four hours at 37 degrees Celsius. The yogurt is tarter if you incubate them longer.
Place the yogurt in a cool environment like in a fridge to stop the incubating. The most critical step in the process of making yogurt is the introduction of bacteria. Bacteria consume the natural sugars of the milk and excrete lactic acid causing the milk proteins to curdle that is almost creates a solid mass. This can also increase the acidity of the dairy. Other flavors can be mixed to give more intense flavor and to acquire health benefits.
Yogurt is rich in minerals and proteins. It is often consumed by people who are suffering from lactose intolerance since it has enzyme that can break down the lactose in the intestines. If it contains Lactobacillus acidophilus, most women ingest it with the attempt to prevent yeast infections as it creates a too acidic environment to thrive in for the Candida albicans.