Gasoline is a flammable, volatile liquid produced from refined petroleum or crude oil. Originally, it was a discarded byproduct of the production of kerosene but it was a useful fuel in various machines because it is capable of to vaporizing at low temperatures.
In the past, gasoline was added with compounds of organic lead to reduce the knocking in engines. But because of the environmental concerns, this is no longer done today. Sweetening is the process of adding other chemicals into the gasoline to improve its color and smell and to further stabilize it.
The first step in manufacturing of gasoline is to find petroleum or the parent ingredient. Crude oil is found in areas of reservoir rock or porous rock after migrating from the area of its origin. After finding the possible oil reservoir, the area needs to be test drilled. To do this, core samples are taken to confirm rock formations and samples are analyzed chemically to determine if there is need for more drilling.
Crude oil is recovered through wells reaching over a thousand feet into the rock. The holes are produced by rotary driller that uses a bit to bore hole in the ground because water is added. Soil and water create thick mud which helps in holding back the oil, preventing it from gushing because of the internal pressure in the reservoir rock. Once the reservoir is reached, the mud will continue to hold the oil back while the drill is being removed and the pipe is inserted.
In order for the oil to be recovered, complicated system of valving and pipes is directly installed in the drilling well. Natural pressure of the reservoir rock will bring the oil out of the well and sending them into the pipes in which these are connected to recovery system consisting series of larger pipes that will take the crude oil to the refinery through an oil and gas separator. When natural pressure is expended, large quantities of oil may remain still in the rock.
Then it will go through fractional distillation process with a huge unit of fractional distillation that can hold thousands of barrels of crude oil. One of the important processes in refining oil is catalytic cracking that uses catalyst, increased pressure, high temperature that will affect the chemical changes in petroleum. Polymerization is another process which is opposite or cracking. When the oil is already refined, chemicals are then added.