Fiberglass refers to a group of products manufactured from individual glass fibers blended to variety of forms. There are two major groups of glass fibers according to their geometry, the first one discontinuous fiber are used as blankets, boards for filtration and installation and continuous fibers that were utilized in textiles and yarns.
The basic raw materials used in producing fiberglass products are variety of natural minerals as well as manufactured chemicals. The ingredients include silica sand, soda ash and limestone. Other ingredients include borax, calcined alumina, feldspar, syenite, nepheline and kaolin clay.
The first procedure necessary in making fiberglass is melting the batch into the furnace. To be able to maintain the smoothness and the steady flow of the glass, the temperature must be controlled precisely. Then the melted glass should be at higher temperature.
The second procedure involved forming into fibers. Textile fibers can be formed from molten glass from the furnace directly or the molten glass can also be fed into the machine which forms glass marbles. This will allow glass to be inspected for impurities.
The long continuous fiber can be made through the process of continuous filament. After it flows through the holes in brushing, several strands are caught up on high speed winder. The alternative method for this is the staplefiber process in which the molten glass flows through the brushing and the jets of air quickly cool the filaments.
Rather than forming into yarn, the long-staple strand can be chopped in shorter lengths. The strand will be mounted on the set of bobbins known as creel. The chopped fiber will be formed into mats where the binder is added. Once it is cured in an oven, the mat will be rolled up. Several weights and thicknesses provide products for shingles or decorative mats.
Aside fro binders, there are other coatings required for making fiberglass products such as lubricants. This will be used for the reduction of fiber abrasion and are sprayed or added directly into the binder. Sizing is coating applied into the textile fibers in the formation operation.
Fiberglass products come in variety of shapes and are made with various processes.