Bread is made of three basic ingredients namely water, grain and bakers’ yeast. The grain is ground in accordance to the type of bread you want to make. Grains are composed of parts such as the bran, germ and endosperm. Together, these three parts are ground to produce rye breads and whole wheat. To produce white flour, the germ and bran should be removed since they contain much grain nutrients. White flour is usually enriched with minerals and vitamins and some of them are even fortified with calcium and fiber.
The grinding process occurs at grain mills that sell the grain in bulk to bakeries. Bakeries keep the grains in sacks for storing until they are ideal to use. In baking factory, yeast and water are combined with the flour to create dough. Other ingredients include fat, salt, honey, sugar, nuts and raisins are also added.
The first step in making bread is mixing and kneading the dough. First, the sifted flour is poured over the industrial mixer. Then the temperature controlled water will be piped into the mixer. The mixture is known as gluten and this gives elasticity to the bread. Measured amount of yeast is added into the mixture. Mixers are usually enclosed drums rotating at speeds ranging from 35 to 75 revolutions per minute. Within the drum, the mechanical arms are kneading the dough to desired consistency in seconds. The mixing process usually takes 12 minutes.
There are three methods used in fermenting the dough. In most plants, they use high speed machinery. Fermentation can be induced by adding chemical additives such as vitamin C and 1-cysteine.
After fermenting the dough, it is loaded with into divider with rotating blades which cut the dough into determined weights. The molding machine will shape the dough into balls and drop them into layered conveyer belt enclosed in humid warm cabinet called prover. The dough will then be conveyed to second molding machine that will re-shape the dough into loaves before they are dropped into pans. The pan will travel into another prover set to high temperature and with high humidity level. Then the pans will enter a tunnel oven. Both the speed and temperature are calculated carefully to completely baked the loves and partially cool them. The baking and cooling process takes about 30 minutes to complete.