Speakers convert electrical energy to audible wave of sounds. The sound waves are produced using complex device made of magnets, metal, plastic, wire and paper. The vibrations on the other hand are produced by an electrical signal to change the strength of the rear magnet of the speaker that cause the plastic or paper cone to generate sound waves through vibration.
The frame of the speaker is made from a stamped aluminum or iron. The frame provides support to all of the components inside the speaker.
The permanent magnet converts electrical signal into mechanical sound waves. It interacts with the voice coil which is an electromagnet, causing the speaker to cone to move as well as vibrate. It is attached to the frame of the speaker. The permanent magnets are produced by fusing strontium and iron dioxide, with ceramic binder in a mold which will be heated to melt the mixture and produce a ceramic magnet.
The voice coil is an electromagnet and it has a varying magnetic strength, depending on the signal input’s strength. Since the signal varies, the difference in the magnetic strength between the permanent magnet and the coil cause the cone and surround to transport backward and forward.
The surround is the component of the speaker surrounding the cone. It is used to attach the cone into the frame of the speaker while allowing free motion to create sound waves. It is often attached into a flexible foam buffer before it is attached into the frame. Surrounds are produced from variety of materials such as plastic, paper and mylar.
The cone is a speaker component that generates the sound waves and it is most made of paper. One end of the voice coil is soldered to the cone. Then as an electrical current runs through the voice coil, the interaction with permanent magnet transports the cone backward and forward to produce sound waves.
After manufacturing, the speaker is mounted in an enclosure. The shape and materials of the enclosure balance and emphasize the speaker’s audio characteristics for wide range of audio uses.