There are to ways of making carpet today – tufting and weaving. The first technique that uses computers that direct machines to construct the specific patterns, styles and densities of the carpet using materials like synthetic yarn.
Step 1: Weaving Fibers
The first step is weaving the fibers into backing materials that keep all of the fibers in place. The tufting machine is similar to a giant sewing machine that has 800 to up to 2,000 needles working together in order for the yarn to pull through. Many tufting machines come in 12 feet width and as the needles penetrate the backing, the looper, which is a small hook, grabs the yarn and then holding it in place. As a result, the loop pile is constructed. To instill some style, the looper rocks back against a knife to allow the small loops of yarn to be cut to create cut pile carpet.
Step 2: Carpet Dying
The next step is dying the carpet which is sometimes done before the final processes but most of the time is done afterwards. The carpets are dyed usually with a single color without any style and pattern. After they are dyed, they will typically go through one silk or more to achieve the pattern and style that is commanded by the computer.
Step 3: Coating The Latex
The third step is coating the latex which is applied to the tufted, primary backing of dyed carpet and to the secondary backing as well. Often times, the secondary backing is made of material called woven synthetic polypropylene. Then the two parts are squeezed in a huge heated press firmly holding them in order for the shape to be preserved. There are some manufacturers that use stain protection application in this process. This is a great idea especially because the carpet experiences a lot of spills and stains.
Final Step: Shearing And Inspection
The last step is shearing and inspection to ensure the accuracy of the design and the quality of the carpet.
On the other hand, weaving is done by machines or hand. In any case, the fibers are vertically placed on a frame, pulling it tight enough to preserve the tension as the yarn is woven under, over or around them. After completing the weaving, the new fibers are horizontally laid across the year, to lock the warps in place.