The most common types of battery used in households over the past decades are alkaline batteries. The primary ingredients used in producing it include manganese dioxide, zinc and carbon black, along with potassium hydroxide. The positively charged part of the battery is also known as the cathode, while anode is known as the negative part. Inside the battery, the anode is located in the innermost layer and surrounded concentrically by the cathode. Cathode is mixture of carbon black and manganese dioxide that resembles like graphite, while the main element of anode is zinc.
The manufacturing process starts by mixing the carbon black, manganese and potassium hydroxide and they are turned into granulated powder. After aging the powder, it is pressed into tablet shape known as perform for insertion into the steel can of battery shell. The shell contacting the preforms directly becomes the cathode part.
The anode which is initially made of zinc is a gel that contain small amount of other substances. The gel will be injected into the center of the cathode in which it is insulated from direct contact with cathode by synthetic or paper separator soaked in a solution of electrically conductive electrolytic alkaline.
Brass nail which is a small insulating gasket, end cap and washer consist the sealing assembly. These are inserted to the center of the can where they could become connected electrically into the negatively charged anode and locked into place with flat metal bottom cap. A steel plate that contain center of protrusion which is a standardized symbol of the cathode or positively charged battery end is glued with epoxy. Then the batteries are subject for testing before they are labeled and is done by applying shrink wrap label before they are sold to the market.
After use, sealed can enclosure and the two ends are expected to leak corrosive fluids and this may not be containable when they are placed in landfills. There are certain rules and regulations imposed by the government regarding on battery disposal to ensure that it won’t cause any harm to people when they are exposed to it.